The bibliography that follows represents a general list of selected key works on the subject of “comfort women” in the Asia-Pacific during World War II. The literature is notable not just for its focus on the experiences of individual comfort women but also for its attention to the historiography—how and why this issue surfaced in the way it did beginning in the early 1990s and how it continues to preoccupy researchers and activists.

Ahmed, Afreen R. “The Shame of Hwang V. Japan: How the International Community Has Failed Asia’s ‘Comfort Women’.” Texas Journal of Women & the Law 14, no. 1 (Fall 2004): 121-149.

Arakawa, Maki. “A New Forum for Comfort Women: Fighting Japan in United States Federal Court.” Berkeley Women’s Law Journal 16 (2001): 174-200.

Argibay, Carmen M. “Sexual Slavery and the “Comfort Women” of World War II.”Berkeley Journal of International Law 21, no. 2 (2003): 375-389.

Asian Women’s Fund, “The “Comfort Women” Issue and the Asian Women’s Fund.” Tokyo: Asian Women’s Fund, 2004. Available online at:

Askin, Kelly D. “Comfort Women: Shifting Shame and Stigma from Victims to Victimizers.” International Criminal Law Review 1, no. 1/2 (January 2001): 5-32.

Barkan, Elazar. “Sex Slaves: Comfort Women and Japanese Guilt.” In The Guilt of Nations: Restitution and Negotiating Historical Injustices. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2000.

Berndt, Caroline M. “Popular Culture as Political Protest: Writing the Reality of Sexual Slavery.” Journal of Popular Culture 31, no. 2 (Fall 1997): 177-187.

Boling, David.  Mass Rape, Enforced Prostitution, and the Japanese Imperial Army:  Japan Eschews International Legal Responsibility?  Baltimore:  University of Maryland School of Law, 1995.

Brooks, Roy L., ed.  When Sorry Isn’t Enough:  The Controversy over Apologies and Reparations for Human Injustice.  New York:  New York University Press, 1999.

Chai, Alice Yun.  “Korean Feminist and Human Rights Politics:  TheChongshindae/Jugunianfu (“Comfort Women”) Movement.”  In Korean American Women:  From Tradition to Modern Feminism, eds. Young L. Song and Ailee Moon.  Westport, Conn.:  Praeger, 1998.

Choi, Chungmoo, ed. The Comfort Women: Colonialism, War, and Sex. Durham N.C.: Duke University Press, 1997.

Chou, Chih-Chieh. “An Emerging Transnational Movement in Women’s Human Rights: Campaign of Nongovernmental Organizations on “Comfort Women” Issue in East Asia.” Journal of Economic & Social Research 5, no. 1 (2003): 153-181.

Chuh, Kandice. “Discomforting Knowledge: Or, Korean “Comfort Women” and Asian Americanist Critical Practice. Journal of Asian American Studies 6, no. 1 (February 2003): 5-23.

Chung, Chin Sung. “The Origin and Development of the Military Sexual Slavery Problem in Imperial Japan.” Positions: East Asia Cultures Critique 5, no. 1 (Spring 1997): 219-253.

Chung, Hyun-Kyung. “‘Your comfort versus my death’: Korean comfort women.”In War’s Dirty Secret: Rape, Prostitution, and Other Crimes against Women, ed. Anne Llewellyn Barstow. Cleveland, OH: The Pilgrim Press, 2000: 13-25.

Coomeraswamy Report to the United Nations. “Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamv, in accordance with Commission on Human Rights resolution 1994/45 Report on the mission to the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, the Republic of Korea and Japan on the issue of military sexual slavery in wartime.”  January 4, 1996. Available at: (need to search for link)

Cumings, Bruce. “Why Memory Lingers in East Asia.” Current History 107, no. 701 (September 2007): 257-262.

Dolgopol, Ustinia. “Women’s Voices, Women’s Pain.” Human Rights Quarterly17, no. 1 (February 1995): 127-155.

Dolgopol, Ustinia and Snehal Paranjape. Comfort Women: An Unfinished Ordeal: Report of a Mission. Geneva, Switzerland: International Commission of Jurists, 1994.

Dudden, Alexis. “We Came to Tell the Truth.” Critical Asian Studies 33, no. 4 (December 2001): 591-602.

Fernandez, Ida Mae V., ed.  International Symposium on Filipino Comfort Women:  Papers and Proceedings. Quezon City:  University of the Philippines Law Center, 1994.

Frühstück, Sabine. “Comfort Women: Sexual Slavery in the Japanese Military During World War II.” Feminist Review, no. 82 (2006): 137-138.

Hata, Ikuhiko. “No Organized or Forced Recruitment: Misconceptions about Comfort Women and the Japanese Military.” Society for the Dissemination of Historical Fact (2007). Available at:

Hata, Ikuhiko. “The Flawed U.N. Report on Comfort Women.”  In Women and Women’s Issues in post World War II Japan, ed. Edward R. Beauchamp. New York: Garland, 1998.

Hata, Ikuhiko. “The Flawed U.N. Report on Comfort Women.” Japan Echo 23, no. 3 (Autumn 1996): 66-73.

Hayashi, Hirofumi. “Government, the Military and Business in Japan’s Wartime Comfort Woman System.” Japan Focus (January 2007). Available at:

Hayashi, Hirofumi. “Structure of Japanese Imperial Government involved in Military Comfort Women System.” Nature People Society: Science and the Humanities 33 (July 2002). Available at: (need to search for link)

Hayashi, Hirofumi. “The Japanese Movement to Protest Wartime Sexual Violence.” Critical Asian Studies 33, no. 4 (December 2001): 572-580. Available at: (need to search for link)

Hayashi, Hirofumi. “Survey of the Japanese Movement against Wartime Sexual Violence.” Peace Studies Bulletin 20 (June 2000). Available at: (need to search for link)

Hayashi, Hirofumi. “Japanese Comfort Women in Southeast Asia.” Japan Forum10, no. 2 (September 1998): 211-219. Available at: (need to search for link)

Hein, Laura. “Savage Irony: The Imaginative Power of the Military Comfort Women in the 1990s.” Gender and History 11, no. 2 (July 1999): 336-72.

Hicks, George. “The Comfort Women.” In The Japanese Wartime Empire, 1931-1945, eds. Peter Duus, Ramon H. Myers, and Mark R. Peattie.  Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1996.

Hicks, George. The Comfort Women: Japan’s Brutal Regime of Enforced Prostitution in the Second World War. New York:  W.W. Norton & Company, 1994.

Howard, Keith. True Stories of the Korean Comfort Women: Testimonies.  London: Cassell, 1995.

Hsu, Yvonne Park. “‘Comfort Women’ from Korea: Japan’s World War II Sex Slaves and the Legitimacy of their Claims to Reparations.” Pacific Rim Law and Policy Journal 2, no. 1 (winter 1993):  97-129.

Kang, Hyun Yi. “Conjuring “Comfort Women”: Mediated Affiliations and Disciplined Subjects in Korean/American Transnationality.” Journal of Asian American Studies 6, no. 1 (February 2003): 25-55.

Keller, Nora Okja. Comfort Woman. London: Penguin, 1998.

Keith Howard, ed. True Stories of the Korean Comfort Women. London: Cassell, 1996.

Kim, Hyun Sook. “History and Memory: The ‘Comfort Women’ Controversy.”Positions: East Asia Cultures Critique 5, no. 1 (Spring 1997): 73-106.

Kim-Gibson. Dai Sil. Silence Broken: Korean Comfort Women. Parkersburg, Iowa: Mid-Prairie Books, 1999.

Kim-Gibson, Dai Sil. “They Are Our Grandmas.” Positions: East Asia Cultures Critique 5, no.1 (Spring 1997): 255-274.

Matsui, Yayori. “Women’s International War Crimes Tribunal on Japan’s Military Sexual Slavery: Memory, Identity, and Society.” East Asia: An International Quarterly 19, no. 4 (Winter 2001): 119-142.

Mendoza, Katharina R. “Freeing the ‘Slaves of Destiny’: The Lolas of the Filipino Comfort Women Movement.” Cultural Dynamics 15, no. 3 (November 2003): 247-266.

Min, Pyong Gap. “Korean ‘Comfort Women’:  The Intersection of Colonial Power, Gender, and Class.” Gender and Society 17, no. 6 (December 2003):  938-957.

Morris-Suzuki, Tessa and Peter Rimmer. “Virtual Memories: Japanese History Debates in Manga and Cyberspace.” Asian Studies Review 26, no. 2 (June 2002): 147-164.

Nakahara, Michiko. “‘Comfort Women’ In Malaysia.” Critical Asian Studies 33, no. 4 (December 2001): 581-589.

Nozaki, Yoshiko. “Feminism, Nationalism, and the Japanese Textbook Controversy over ‘Comfort Women’.”  In Feminism and Antiracism:  International Struggles for Justice, eds. France Winddance Twine and Kathleen M. Blee. New York: New York University Press, 2001.

Park, Won Soon. “Japanese Reparations Policies and the ‘Comfort Women’Question.”  Positions:  East Asia Cultures Critique 5, no. 1 (spring 1997:  107-134.

Park, You-me. “Comforting the Nation: ‘Comfort Women,’ the Politics of Apology and the Workings of Gender.”  Interventions 2, no. 2 (July 2000): 199-211.

Piper, Nicola. “Transnational Women’s Activism in Japan and Korea: The Unresolved Issue of Military Sexual Slavery.” Global Networks 1, no. 2 (April 2001): 155-170.

Ruff-O’Herne, Jan.  50 Years of Silence. Sydney: Editions Tom Thompson, 1994.

Sajor, Indai Lourdes, ed. Common Grounds: Violence Against Women in War and Armed Conflict Situations. Quezon City, Philippines: Asian Center for Women’s Human Rights, 1998.

Sancho, Nelia. War Crimes on Asian Women: Military Sexual Slavery by Japan during World War II: The Case of the Filipino Comfort Women, Part II.Manila: Asian Women Human Rights Council, 1998.

Sancho, Nelia. “The ‘Comfort Women’ System during World War II:  Asian Women as Targets of Mass Rape and Sexual Slavery by Japan.” In Gender and Catastrophe, ed. Ronit Lentin. London: Zed Books, 1997.

Sand, Jordan. “Historians and Public Memory in Japan.” History & Memory 11, no. 2 (Fall/Winter 1999): 116-128.

Schellstede, Sangmie Choi, ed. Comfort Women Speak: Testimony by Sex Slaves of the Japanese Military. New York: Holmes & Meier, 2000.

Seaton, Philip. “Reporting the ‘Comfort Women’ Issue, 1991-1992: Japan’s Contested War Memories in the National Press.” Japanese Studies 26, no. 1 (May 2006): 99-112.

Soh, C Sarah. “In/fertility among Korea’s “Comfort Women” Survivors: A Comparative Perspective.” Women’s Studies International Forum 29, no. 1 (January 2006): 67-80.

Soh, Sarah C. “Women’s Sexual Labor and State in Korean History.” Journal of Women’s History 15, no. 4 (Winter 2004):  170-177.

Soh, C Sarah. “Aspiring to Craft Modern Gendered Selves: ‘Comfort Women’ and Chôngsindae in Late Colonial Korea.” Critical Asian Studies 36, no. 2 (June 2004): 175-198.

Soh, Sarah C. “Japan’s National/Asian Women’s Fund for ‘Comfort Women’.” Pacific Affairs 76, no. 2 (Summer 2003): 209-233.

Soh, C. Sarah. “Japan’s Responsibility toward Comfort Women Survivors.” Japan Policy Research Institute Working Paper 77 (May 2001). Available at:

Soh, Chunghee Sarah. “Prostitutes versus Sex Slaves: The Politics of Representing the ‘Comfort Women’.” In The Legacies of the Comfort Women of World War II, eds. Margaret Stetz and Bonnie Oh. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, Inc., 2001: 69-87.

Soh, Chunghee Sarah. “Centering the Korean “Comfort Women” Survivors.”Critical Asian Studies 33, no.4 (2001): 603-608.

Soh, Chunghee Sarah. “Human Rights and the ‘Comfort Women’.” Peace Review12, no. 1 (March 2000): 123-129.

Soh, Chunghee Sarah. “From Imperial Gifts to Sex Slaves: Theorizing Symbolic Representations of the ‘Comfort Women’.” Social Science Japan Journal 3, no.1 (2000): 59-76.

Soh, Chunghee Sarah. “The Problem of “Comfort Women”: The Intersections of Gender, Sexuality, Class, Ethnicity, and the State.” In Cross-Cultural Communication East and West in the 90’s. eds., Bates L. Hoffer and John H. Koo. San Antonio, TX: Institute for Cross-Cultural Research, 1998: 83-87

Soh, Chunghee Sarah. “The Korean “Comfort Women”: Movement for Redress.”Asian Survey 36, no. 12 (December 1996): 1227-1240.

Song, Youn-ok and Melissa L. Wender. “Japanese Colonial Rule and State-Managed Prostitution: Korea’s Licensed Prostitutes.” Positions 5, no. 1 (Spring 1997): 171-217.

Stetz, Margaret and Bonnie Oh, eds. Legacies of the Comfort Women of World War II. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 2001.

Tanaka, Yuki. Japan’s Comfort Women: Sexual Slavery and Prostitution during World War II and the U.S. Occupation. London: Routledge, 2002.

Thoma, Pamela. “Cultural Autobiography, Testimonial, and Asian American Transnational Feminist Coalition in the “Comfort Women of World War II”Conference.” Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies 21, no. 1/2 (2000): 29-54.

Ueno, Chizuko. “The Politics of Memory.” History & Memory 11, no. 2 (Fall/Winter 1999): 129-152.

Ueno, Chizuko. “The Japanese Responsibility for Military Rape During World War II.” Asian Studies Review 17, no. 3 (1994): 102-107.

Wakabayashi, Bob Tadashi. “Comfort Women: Beyond Litigious Feminism.” Monumenta Nipponica 58, no. 2 (summer 2003): 223-258.

Watanabe, Kazuko. “Trafficking in Women’s Bodies, Then and Now: The Issue of Military ‘Comfort Women’.” Women’s Studies Quarterly 27, no. 1/2 (Spring/Summer 1999): 19-31.

Watanabe, Kazuko. “Trafficking in Women’s Bodies, Then and Now.” Peace & Change 20, no. 4 (October 1995): 501-514.

Watanabe, Kazuko. “Militarism, Colonialism, and the Trafficking of Women:’Comfort Women’ Forced into Sexual Labor for Japanese Soldiers.” Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars 26, no. 4 (October-December 1994): 2-17.

Yang, Hyunah. “Re-membering the Korean Military Comfort Women: Nationalism, Sexuality, and Silencing.” In Dangerous Women:  Gender and Korean Nationalism, eds. Elaine H. Kim and Chungmoo Choi. New York: Routledge, 1998.

Yang, Hyunah. “Revisiting the Issue of Korean ‘Military Comfort Women’:  The Question of Truth and Positionality.” Positions: East Asia Cultures Critique 5, no. 1 (Spring 1997): 51-71.

Yoshimi, Yoshiaki. Comfort Women: Sexual Slavery in the Japanese Military during World War II. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000.

Yoshimi, Yoshiaki. The First [Second] Report on the Issue of Japan’s Military “Comfort Women”: Historical and Legal Study on the Issue of “Military Comfort Women.” Osaka: Center for Research and Documentation on  Japan’s War Responsibility, 1994.