The bibliography that follows represents a list of selected key works that deal with the theoretical and comparative aspects of “memory and reconciliation” in the broader context of World War II in the Asia-Pacific. Scholars have focused extensively not only on how the two main countries defeated in World War II—Japan and Germany—have dealt with the issues of war guilt and reparations, but also with how wartime legacies continue to impact the bilateral relations of those countries in Asia most directly affected by the war.

Barkan, Elazar. The Guilt of Nations: Restitution and Negotiating Historical Injustices.  New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2000.

Barthel, Diane.  Historic Preservation:  Collective Memory and Historical Identity.  New Brunswick, N.J.:  Rutgers University Press, 1996.

Buruma, Ian. Wages of Guilt: Memories of War in Germany and Japan. New York: Farrar Strauss Giroux, 1994.

Buzan, Barry. “Japan’s Future: Old History versus New Roles.” International Affairs 64, no. 4 (autumn 1988): 557-573.

Cook, Haruko Taya, and Theodore F. Cook. Japan at War: An Oral History. New York:  New Press, 1992.

Crocker, David A.. “Reckoning with Past Wrongs: A Normative Framework,”Ethics & International Affairs 13 (1999): 43-64.

Dower, John. “‘An Aptitude for Being Unloved’: War and Memory in Japan.” InCrimes of War: Guilt and Denial in the Twentieth Century, eds. Omer Bartov, Atina Grossman, and Mary Nolan. New York: New Press, 2002.

Dower, John. “The Bombed: Hiroshimas and Nagasakis in Japanese Memory.”Diplomatic History 19, no. 2 (spring 1995): 275-295.

Dwyer, Susan. “Reconciliation for Realists.” Ethics & International Affairs 13 (1999): 81-98.

Field, Norma. “War and Apology: Japan, Asia, the Fiftieth, and After.”positions: east asia cultures critique 5, no. 1 (spring 1997): 1-49.

Fujitani, T., Geoffrey M. White, and Lisa Yoneyama, eds. Perilous Memories: The Asia-Pacific War(s). Durham: Duke University Press, 2001.

Funabashi, Yoichi, ed. Reconciliation in the Asia-Pacific. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace Press, 2003.

Gibney, Frank B., ed. Senso: The Japanese Remember the Pacific War: Letters to the Editor of Asahi Shimbun. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 1995.

Gluck, Carol. “The Past in the Present.” In Postwar Japan as History, ed. Andrew Gordon.  Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.

Gong, Gerrit, ed. Memory and History in East and Southeast Asia. Washington, D.C.:  Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2001.

Gong, Gerrit, ed. Remembering and Forgetting: The Legacy of War and Peace in East Asia. Washington, D.C.: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1996.

Hashimoto, Akiko. Japanese and German Projects of Moral Recovery: Toward a New Understanding of War Memories in Defeated Nations. Cambridge: Harvard University, Edwin O. Reischauer Institute of Japanese Studies, 1999.

Hein, Laura. Censoring History: Citizenship and Memory in Japan, Germany, and the United States. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 2000.

Hein, Laura, and Mark Selden, eds. Living with the Bomb: American and Japanese Cultural Conflicts in the Nuclear Age. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 1997.

Hicks, George. Japan’s War Memories: Amnesia or Concealment? Aldershot, England:  Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 1997.

Hogan, Michael J., ed. Hiroshima in History and Memory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Horvat, Andrew and Gebhard Hielscher, eds. Sharing the Burden of the Past: Legacies of War In Europe, America and Asia. Tokyo: The Asia Foundation/Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, 2003.

Kim, Hyun Sook. “History and Memory: The ‘Comfort Women’ Controversy.”positions:  east asia cultures critique 5, no. 1 (spring 1997): 73-106.

Kitaoka, Shin’ichi. “The Folly of the Fiftieth-Anniversary Resolution.” Japan Echo 22, no. 3 (autumn 1995): 66-74.

Kristof, Nicholas D. “The Problem of Memory.” Foreign Affairs 77, no. 6 (November/December 1998): 37-49.

Markovits, Andrei S., and Simon Reich. The German Predicament: Memory and Power in the New Europe. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1997.

Minow, Martha. Between Vengeance and Forgiveness: Facing History after Genocide and Mass Violence. Boston: Beacon Press, 1998.

Mochizuki, Mike. Japan Re-Orients. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 2001.

Orr, James J.  The Victim as Hero:  Ideologies of Peace and National Identity in Postwar Japan.  Honolulu:  University of Hawaii Press, 2001.

Paris, Erna.  Long Shadows:  Truth, Lies, and History.  New York:  Bloomsbury, 2001.

Perlman, Michael. Imagined Memory and the Place of Hiroshima. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1988.

Rose, Caroline. Interpreting History in Sino-Japanese Relations: A Case Study in Political Decision-Making. London: Routledge, 1998.

Shibusawa, Masahide. “Japan’s Historical Legacies: Implications for Its Relations with Asia.” In The Process of Japanese Foreign Policy: Focus on Asia, ed. Richard L. Grant. London: The Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1997.

Volkan, Vamik D., Joseph V. Montville, and Demetrios A. Julius. The Psychodynamics of International Relationships. Vol. 2, Unofficial Diplomacy at Work. Lexington, Mass: Lexington Books, 1991.

Whiting, Allen S. China Eyes Japan. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1989.

Yang, Daqing. “Mirror for the Future or the History Card? Understanding the ‘History Problem’.” In Chinese-Japanese Relations in the Twenty-first Century: Complementarity and Conflict, ed. Marie Söderberg. London: Routledge, 2002.

Yoneyama, Lisa. Hiroshima Traces: Time, Space, and the Dialectics of Memory.Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.