The bibliography that follows represents a list of selected key works that deal with the issue of war crimes committed during the 1930s and 1940s in the Asia-Pacific. Works include those devoted to specific topics—the Nanjing massacre, Unit 731, war crimes tribunals, among others—as well as texts more broadly focused on the ways in which historians and others have investigated, documented, and represented the substance and significance of wartime atrocities.

Bess, Michael. Choices under Fire: Moral Dimensions of World War II. New York: A.A. Knopf, 2006.

Boling, David.  Mass Rape, Enforced Prostitution, and the Japanese Imperial Army: Japan Eschews International Legal Responsibility?  Baltimore: University of Maryland School of Law, 1995.

Brackman, Arnold C. The Other Nuremburg: The Untold Story of the Tokyo War Crimes Trials.  New York: William Morrow and Company, 1987.

Brook, Timothy. “The Tokyo Judgment and the Rape of Nanking.” The Journal of Asian Studies 60, no. 3. (Aug., 2001): 673-700.

Brook, Timothy, ed.  Documents on the Rape of Nanjing.  Ann Arbor:  University of Michigan Press, 1999.

Brownlee, John. “The Tokyo Trial Fifty Years Later.” In Japan at Century’s End,ed. Hugh Millward and James Morrison. Halifax: Fernwood, 1997.

Chang, Iris. The Rape of Nanjing: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II.New York, NY:  BasicBooks, 1997.

Chang, Maria Hsia and Robert P. Barker.  “Victor’s Justice and Japan’s Amnesia:  The Tokyo War Crimes Trial Reconsidered.”  East Asia:  An International Quarterly 19, no. 4 (winter 2001):  55-86.

Comyns-Carr, A. S. “The Tokyo War Crimes Trial.” Far Eastern Survey 18, no. 10 (May 1949): 109-114.

Douglas, Lawrence. “Ideology and International Law: The Dissent of the Indian Justice at the Tokyo War Crimes Trial.” In War Crimes Law, ed. Gerry Simpson. Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate/Dartmouth, 2004.

Dower, John. Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1999.

Dower, John. War Without Mercy:  Race and Power in the Pacific War. New York:  Pantheon Books, 1986.

Dull, Paul S. The Tokyo Trials: A Functional Index to the Proceedings of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1957.

Falk, Richard A, Gabriel Kolko and Robert Jay Lifton, eds.  Crimes of War:  A Legal, Political-Documentary, and Psychological Inquiry into the Responsibility of Leaders, Citizens, and Soldiers for Criminal Acts in Wars.   New York:  Random House, 1971.

Fogel, Joshua A., ed. The Nanjing Massacre in History and Historiography.Berkeley:  University of California Press, 2000.

Fogel, Joshua A. “Review of The Rape of Nanjing: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II by Iris Chang.” The Journal of Asian Studies 57, no. 3 (August 1998): 818-820.

Ginn, John L.  Sugamo Prison, Tokyo:  An Account of the Trial and Sentencing of Japanese War Criminals in 1948, by a U.S. Participant.  Jefferson, N.C.:  McFarland & Company, Inc., 1992.

Gold, Hal. Unit 731 Testimony: Japan’s Wartime Human Experimentation Program. Tokyo:  YenBooks, 1996.

Harris, Sheldon H. Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare 1932-45 and the American Cover-up. London: Routledge, rev. edition 2002.

Hayashi, Hirofumi “British War Crimes Trials of Japanese.” Nature-People-Society: Science and the Humanities 31, (July 2001). Available at: (Need to look for link)

Honda, Katsuichi. The Nanjing Massacre: A Japanese Journalist Confronts Japan’s National Shame. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 1999.

Horwitz, Solis. The Tokyo Trial. New York: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1950.

Hosoya, C., N. Ando, Y. Onuma, and R. Minear, eds. The Tokyo War Crimes Trial: An International Symposium. Tokyo: Kodansha International, 1986.

International Military Tribunal for the Far East. The Tokyo major war crimes trial : the transcripts of the court proceedings of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East. Mellen Press, 1998.

Johnson, Galen Irvin. Defending the Japanese Warlords: American Attorneys at the Tokyo War Crimes Trial 1946-1948. Ann Arbor: University of Microfilms International, 1998.

Kobori, Keiichiro. The Tokyo Trials: The Unheard Defense. Rockport, Maine: New England History Press, 2003.

Li, Fei Fei, Robert Sabella, and David Liu, eds. Nanjing 1937: Memory and Healing.  Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 2002.

Li, Peter, ed. Japanese War Crimes: The Search for Justice. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 2003.

Li, Peter. “Hirohito’s War Crimes Responsibility: The Unrepentant Emperor.”Human Rights Review 4, no. 2, (Jan-Mar2003): 3-10.

Liu, James T. C. “The Tokyo Trial: Source Materials.” Far Eastern Survey 17, no. 14 (July 1948): 168-170.

Maga, Tim.  Judgment at Tokyo:  The Japanese War Crimes Trials.  Lexington, KY:  University Press of Kentucky, 2001.

McCormack, Gavan. “Reflections on Modern Japanese History in the Context of the Concept of Genocide.” In The Specter of Genocide: Mass Murder in Historical Perspective, eds. Robert Gellately and Ben Kiernan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Minear, Richard H.  Victors’ Justice:  The Tokyo War Crimes Trial.  Princeton:  Princeton University Press, 1971.

Ogawa, Shuko. “The Difficulty of Apology: Japan’s Struggle with Memory and Guilt.” Harvard International Review 22, no. 3 (Fall 2000): 42-46.

Pal, Radhabinod. Dissentient Judgment of Justice Pal. Tokyo: Kokusho Kankokai, 1999.

Piccigallo, Philip R.  The Japanese on Trial:  Allied War Crimes Operations in the East, 1945-1951.    Austin:  University of Texas Press, 1979.

Powell, John W.  “Japan’s Biological Weapons:  1930-1945.”  Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 37 (October 1981):  44-52.

Pritchard, R. John.  “War Crimes, International Criminal Law, and the Postwar Trials in Europe and Asia.”  In World War II in Asia and the Pacific and the War’s Aftermath, with General Themes:  A Handbook of Literature and Research, ed. Loyd E. Lee.  Westport, Conn.:  Greenwood Press, 1998.

Pritchard, R. John and Sonia Magbanua Zaide, annot. comp. ed. The Tokyo War Crimes Trial: Index and Guide. New York: Garland Pub., 1981.

Rees, Laurence. Horror in the East: Japan and the Atrocities of World War II.Cambridge, Mass: Da Capo Books, 2001.

Roland, Charles G. “Massacre and Rape in Hong Kong: Two Case Studies Involving Medical Personnel and Patients.” Journal of Contemporary History 32, no. 1 (January 1997): 43-61.

Roling, B.V.A.  The Tokyo Trial and Beyond:  Reflections of a Peacemonger.  Cambridge, UK: Polity Press, 1993.

Scheiber, Harry N. “Taking Responsibility: Moral and Historical Perspectives on the Japanese War-Reparations Issues.” Berkeley Journal of International Law20, no. 1 (2002): 233-249.

Simma, Bruno.  “The Impact of Nuremberg and Tokyo:  Attempts at a Comparison.”  In Japan And International Law,  Past, Present and Future:  International Symposium to Mark The Centennial of the Japanese Association of International Law, ed. Nisuke Ando.  The Hague:  Kluwer Law International, 1999.   

Smith, Robert Barr. “Justice under the Sun: Japanese War Crimes Trials.” World War II 11, no. 3 (September 1996): 38-48.

Smalley, Martha Lund, ed. American Missionary Eyewitnesses to the Nanking Massacre, 1937-38. New Haven: Yale Divinity School Library, 1997.

Stanton, John. “Canada and War Crimes: Judgment at Tokyo.” International Journal 55, no. 3 (2000): 376–400.

Stanton, John. “Reluctant Vengeance: Canada at the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal.” Journal of American and Canadian Studies 17 (1999). Available at: (Need to look for link)

Tanaka, Masaaki.  What Really Happened in Nanjing:  The Refutation of a Common Myth.  Trans.  Sekai Shuppan.  Tokyo:  Sekai Shuppan, Inc., 2000.

Tanaka, Yuki. Hidden Horrors: Japanese War Crimes in World War II. N.p.: Westview Press, 1996.

Tanaka, Yuki. “Poison Gas: The Story Japan Would Like to Forget.” Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, Vol. 44, No. 8 (October 1988): 10-19.

Ushimura, Kei. Beyond the “Judgment of civilization”: the Intellectual Legacy of the Japanese War Crimes Trials, 1946-1949. Tokyo: International House of Japan, 2003.

Welch, Jeanie M. The Tokyo Trial: A Bibliographic Guide to English-Language Sources. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2002.

Wickert, Erwin, ed.  The Good Man of Nanking:  The Diaries of John Rabe.  Trans. John E. Woods.  New York:  Alfred E. Knopf, 1998.

Williams, Peter and Wallace, David. Unit 731: Japan’s Secret Biological Warfare in World War II. New York: The Free Press, 1989.

Yamamoto, Masahiro.  Nanking:  Anatomy of an Atrocity.  Westport, Conn.:  Praeger, 2000.

Yang, Daqing. “Convergence or Divergence? Recent Historical Writings on the Rape of  Nanjing.” The American Historical Review 104, no. 3 (June 1999): 842-65.

Yin, James and Young, Shi. The Rape of Nanking: An Undeniable History in Photographs.  Chicago: Innovative Publishing Group, 1997.

Yoneyama, Lisa. “Traveling Memories, Contagious Justice: Americanization of Japanese War Crimes at the End of the Post-Cold War.” Journal of Asian American Studies 6, no. 1 (February 2003): 57-93.