In addition to judicial and legislative proceedings conducted on bilateral levels, international and multilateral proceedings have been carried out regarding controversial and emotionally charged issues, such as the “comfort women,” forced labor, and POWs.  Both governmental and non-governmental organizations, including the United Nations, the International Labor Organization, and the International Women’s Court, have compiled reports, issued resolutions, accepted petitions and letters from local organizations (i.e. the Korean Confederation of Trade Unions), and held war crime tribunals.  Documents (resolutions, reports, oral judgments, letters, and petitions) from these organizations are listed below.

Hague Conventions

United Nations

International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)

International Women’s Court (ICCWomen)

Lawsuits filed against the Japanese government by former “comfort women,” POWs, and forced laborers are filed primarily on the basis of Japan’s violation of international treaties and conventions.

The Japanese side argues that Japan is subject to sovereign immunity and that individual victims’ claims for damages are not acceptable under international law since compensation can only be, and was, carried out on a government-to-government basis via treaties.

Below are links to other official treaties and conventions:

Bilateral (signed between Japan and Asian countries)